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Then ita Canadian! who object to the introdnction 
of cadet drill into the schools because they think it 
develops a spirit of militarism. Experience has proved 
that thii view is incorrect. Boys thoroughly e^joy 
cadet work without any direct coisciousness of its rela- 
tionship to war. The boy thinks only of the immediate 
effort, the immediate discipline, and the immediate 
enjoyment, and not of any ultimate and distant possi- 
bility. This well known psychological principle has a 
most important bearing on the whole question of the 
desirability of introducing cadet work into the schools. 

It ihould be remembered in this connection that 
soldiera do not cause war. Qrave dissensions hereon 
nations result from differences between the political and 
financial leaders of different countries, not from any- 
thing the soldiers of the rival countries say or do. The 
soldier is not the war-monger. He is more likely to 
become the war-victim. 

There are men who attack those who advocate cadet 
woric in the schools, and who charge them with approv- 
ing of "conscription." This charge has absolutely no 
foundation. The cadet system is a rational substitute 
for conscription. It avoids all the evils of conscription, 
and it develops the best elements of human power and 
character, wl^e at the same time it secures all the 
supposed advantages of conscription in the most natural 
and the most thoroughly effective way. Those who 
attack the principle of univerial training are evidently 
not aware of the fact that the law of Canada now recog- 
nizes the principle that all men, with comparatively few 
exceptions, are responsible for the defence of their 
country. Between the agee of eighteen and forty-five, 
inclusive, men are now, by law, liablo to be called upon 
when necessary to do military service in the defence of 
their country. There is no logical basis for (■ooil 
citizenship bnt ihe one that recognize* a man's duties 



. <»»• 

to hii country. There ii n<r proper iTiteiD of tnining 
in citizenahip that doei not make ell children— «irl« as 
well as boyi— conscioua of their reaponsibilitiea as 
individual units in their country. Boya should under- 
stand that they will become reeponaible for the defence 
of their homes and their country when they reach the 
age of eighteen. They should be trained to uae their 
influence to aroid war; but the fundamental principle 
ia that they are liable by law to give their services to 
defend their country when necesaary in return for tli« 
privilegea they enjoy aa citizena. 

It is an indefensible moral ideal that a man should 
enjoy the many rights of citizenship without recogniz- 
ing hia reaponsibility for the duties of citizenship. 

The advocate* of a Cadet Syatp' do not wish any 
change in the law which makea every man between the 
agea of eighteen and forty-five years reaponsible for the 
defence of his country. They do, however, regard it a* 
a griavoua mistake to make all men within these age 
limits liab'e for military aeivice, as the law now does, 
without providing in aome way for their training in 
order that they may be able to render efficient service 
without the terrible sacrifice of life that would natur- 
ally result from the rain attempts of maaaes of untrained 
men to perform the duty required of them. 

Universal liubility for defence aervice ia unquestion- 
ably risht Thia being true, it clearly foUowa that all 
men should, in some way, be prepared to perform the 
duty laid upon them by their country. The country 
that demands universal service without providing some 
adequate syatem of universal training for the men on 
whom it properly lays the duty is culpably negligent 

The luoetion to be solved really is : What is the most 
effective and moat economical syatem for giving uni- 
versal training? 

The Oadet System has the following liierits from the 
national standpoint: — 

1. It ia given at a time when lessoi s learned by 
operative processes are never forgotten. Drill is an 
operative process. OperatiTe processei are not recorded 
in the memories, but i' the lives of studonta. 


9. It coat* the country lem to train the coming oiticent 
in the Bchools than in any other way. 

3. It interferoii with tliu onlinary ilutios of ui«u leaa 
than any other poaHiblc plan to havn th<> foundation of 
military drill given in the ichooln. 

4. It qualifies tho -iCn of tho country for more 
complete military training in mufh Hhortt^r time than 
it would take to train them without radct training in 
the achoola. Hen in later years will find tlieir training 
in military drill to ho mainly reviewiiiR the work they 
did in school instead of having to 1(':trn tho whole work 
at maturity. 

6. Boys like military drill. From twelve to sixteen 
years of age, thoy generally like it better than baseball 
or lacrosse, and because of this fact, it may be used so 
as to produce the most beneficial offpcti upon character. 

6. A Cadet is not a soldier. TTo takes no oath of 
military senice. He is a boy who, for his own good 
and the good of his country, is disciplined through 
wholesome exercises, some of which have had a military 
origin, and some have not. Any possihio objection to a 
Cadet Corps applies with equal force to n Boys' Brigade. 

The following are the general advantages of Cadet 
training to the Cadets themselTes: — 

1. It provides an excellent setting-up drill for boys 
physically. Boys whose teachers, parents and physicians 
have tried earnestly to train to sit and to stand properly 
without success, in most cases respond at once to drill 
and become h'^w physical types. Drill exercises are good 
for the general physical development of a boy, but they 
produce better effects than additional strength and 
improved health. They give a more dignified bearing, 
a more graceful carriage of the body and a more definite 

It is not possible to train a boy so that throughout 
his life ho will stand erect and walk with moro grace 
and dignity without, at the same time, influencing him 
morally for good. The physical, the intellectual and the 
moral natures react on each other. They should be 
trained in haimony, in order that each individual may 

rcni-li Ilia boat dcvcloptnont in the three deptrtment* of 
hi!< nature. 

Kvcry parent in Cenaila who has had sons nt t)it> 
IJoyol Military College, ami every man who huB :m't 
hoya before and aftor their course there, ha§ reooRiilicd 
f^u extraordinary improvement in hoalth, strength, 
stature and physique which has folluweu that course. 

Kvcry man, whatever his party polities, who lias seen 
the military training In Germany or in Swcilen or 
Switzerland, teatilies to the improvement in health, 
sti .iRth, bearing and self-respect wIpVh baa attende^l it. 

2. It triiins boys to bo promptlj. definitely, intclli- 
ircntly and cheerfully obo'lient. There can bo no 
diversity of opinion in regard to a training that develop? 
prompt, dcSnito, intelligent and che^fful obedioni'e to 
reg ^arly constituted authority. There is no other sfhonl 
process that develops these types of obedience in a boy's 
character so nattiralW, so effectively and so permanently 
as drill. 

3. It reveals law to a boy, not as a restraining force 
merely, but os a guiding fo.ce, by enabling him to 
achieve much more perfect results under law than he 
could possibly achieve without law. Without the laws 
that govern its movements, a Company or a Regiment 
would be an unrelated mass of individuals or a mob; 
tiiider law, it is a perfect organization, capable of 
k>zeoutinK a vt.-r complicated series of movements 
accurately and unitedly, not as individuals but as an 
organic unity. One of the most essential elements of 
true mori-1 training is reverence for law La a guiding 
force. To understand "the perfect law of lilerty." and 
have a true consciousness of what is meant 'jy "liberty 
under law," is one of the strongest foundati ms of char- 
actor. This recognition of law gives a man a deeper 
and broader conception of his true attitude to his fellow- 
men and to his duty. 

1. It devoliips a boy's genuine patriotism; not an 
unogant i>r offensive consciousness of national Import- 
iinoe, but a gcn\jine faith in himself and his country. 
Sn'-b n fiiith id one of the basic elements of a strong and 
lialauiud mural character. In many parts of Canada, a 


Krt'iit ntiiny forpifrn boys are making a now home. Then 
iif nc other proccM by which thry can he nin<lo proiiH of 
their King, their new countrj, their flnit, aiiH the iiiati 
tulioiia it rcpreaents i.> quicltly and so thoroiiKlil aa by 
wrarinir the King's uniform, and Iceeping step tn patri- 
otic Br'tiih-Oanadian music behind the Union Jack as 
part of a patriotic organization, along with Britiah- 
Conailinn boys. In this way a patriotic spirit enters a 
I'oy's htnrt and life. 

5, Drill does more ihan de''elop t\\e spirit of patrio- 
tism. It reveals to i boy his value as a citi/cn, and, 
therefore, his r*wponsibility for the performance of his 
duties as a citizen not merely in defence of his country, 
but in the highest development of hix country in nil 
dfpjirt:nent8 of national life. 

fl. Cadet drill helps to make a boy executive, and 
executive training is the training that gives real practi- 
cal value to all other kinds o' training. 0: e of the 
greatest causes of failurr in the fichools of tbi past was 
the lack of executive training. 

7. All modem advances in education ore bnseil on a 
reverent recognition of tho value cf the individual seal, 
and of the supreme need of its development. IJrill gi\ 'S 
a boy nn opportunity to learn the value of individual 
traini]ig and of individual effort by experience, better 
than any other school work except organized play, or 
organ: ^ed work ii Manual Training or some other form 
of em iloyment. Each boy knows from the first that the 
standing of the Company depends on the work of oach 
individual boy. He knov/s also Lhat bis failure bringa 
discredit on his Company. This knowledge will, in due 
time, reveal to him the need of his life work to aid bis 
community and his country to rteir highest develop- 

8. Drill refines in a boy's mind the need of active 
eo-operation Tvith his fellows — boys and men. It is very 
important that each man shall become consciouH of the 
value of his own individuality. It is much more 
important ihat lie learn bis supreme value as « social 
iiiilt, ns out wnrkinp with and for humanity. The true 
ideals of social unity and social relationship cunnot be 
.■ommunicated vitally to children or to adults by worU 

'■i' ^-t effort, in han, ,;;„;:""' "',"""'''« '""h 
»• "rill train, n b.^ T„ ,. ' '■;";'"'•■" " •"""• 

clothing „„.! Z^rj^TZ. "f ^'•"""■"^ '" ■"■ 
<^h"act.,. " '' '" "» ""Portant ekniTOt in 

'"pi^\Z%'^y'['Z''''r-' ': '■«■""'•«"!<' qa.d- 

drill in ..hool. fo,,rrr '"/•""" of milium 

f"ini..K i,, therefore be efi. ' Jl'T -"l "'■*■ The 
break „f war. or «n^ nl!^ f" ' "P"'* '''<"•' «nT out- 

(Rev.) Nat.u„k,. R„„« 

(Very Rev.) D. Mi.VK,, (;„„,„,. ^, ^ 

Uii.vorsu.y. Kinffs.on, ()„i ^ " 

(Kev.) Canon G. Dautii 

/;"-f "'"^ i"-"' Uni„r.Uy, Montreal 
(Rev.) H. J. CoDv, D.D„ LL.D., 
Ke». ^rcAifeacon, Toronto. 
(Kev.) J. W. Maomulan, D.D, 

Pastor. Presbyterian Church, Halifax. 
(Rev.) Solomon Jacobs, 

Rabbi, Holy Blossom Synagogu,,Toronto. 
(Rev.) T. Cbawfobd Brown, MA 




(R«T.) r,. MlNEIIAH, 

Pulor, 8t. rtter-$ Ckureh. Toronh. 

IfAURirj nilTTOH, M.A., 

Principal, Univrnih, ColUg; Toronto. 
Waltir Jauei BiinwN, 

Aylner, Onl. 

Jo'iN A. CiKirKB, M.A., 

Jahks L. Huuiics, 

Chief Imprclor of Sck...jti, Turonlo,